Search our database of hundreds of health information articles. They are current, constantly updated, and authoritatively sourced!
Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including
Skin infections are the most common. They can look like pimples or boils. They may be red, swollen and painful, and sometimes have pus or other drainage. They can turn into impetigo, which turns into a crust on the skin, or cellulitis, a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot.
Anyone can get a staph skin infection. You are more likely to get one if you have a cut or scratch, or have contact with a person or surface that has staph bacteria. The best way to prevent staph is to keep hands and wounds clean. Most staph skin infections are easily treated with antibiotics or by draining the infection. Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder to treat.
You may have heard of anabolic steroids, which can have harmful effects. But there's another type of steroid - sometimes called a corticosteroid - that treats a variety of problems. These steroids are similar to hormones that your adrenal glands make to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. They reduce inflammation and affect the immune system.
You may need to take corticosteroids to treat
Steroids are strong medicines, and they can have side effects, including weakened bones and cataracts. Because of this, you usually take them for as short a time as possible.
Can a tan be healthy?
Some people think that tanning gives them a healthy glow. But tanning, either outdoors or indoors with a tanning bed, is not healthy at all. It exposes you to harmful rays and puts you at risk for health problems such as melanoma and other skin cancers.What are UV rays, and how do they affect the skin?
Sunlight travels to earth as a mixture of both visible and invisible rays. Some of the rays are harmless to people. But one kind, ultraviolet (UV) rays, can cause problems. They are a form of radiation. UV rays do help your body make vitamin D, but too much exposure damages your skin. Most people can get the vitamin D that they need with only about 5 to 15 minutes of sun exposure two to three times a week.
There are three types of UV rays. Two of them, UVA and UVB, can reach the earth's surface and affect your skin. Using a tanning bed also exposes you to UVA and UVB.
UVB rays can cause sunburn. UVA rays can travel more deeply into the skin than UVB rays. When your skin is exposed to UVA, it tries to protect itself from further damage. It does this by making more melanin, which is the skin pigment that makes your skin darker. That's what gives you a tan. This means that your tan is a sign of skin damage.What are the health risks of tanning?
Since tanning means overexposure to UV rays, it can damage your skin and cause health problems such as
It is also important to check your skin once a month. If you do see any new or changing spots or moles, go see your health care provider.Isn't indoor tanning safer than tanning in the sun?
Indoor tanning is not better than tanning in the sun; it also exposes you to UV rays and damages your skin. Tanning beds use UVA light, so they expose you to a higher concentration of UVA rays than you would get by tanning in the sun. Tanning lights also expose you to some UVB rays.
Some people think that getting a "base tan" in a tanning salon can protect you when you go in the sun. But a "base tan" causes damage to your skin and will not prevent you from getting sunburn when you go outside.
Indoor tanning is particularly dangerous for younger people. You have a higher risk of melanoma if you started doing indoor tanning while you were a teen or young adult.
Some research shows that frequent tanning may even be addictive. This can be dangerous because the more often you tan, the more damage you do to your skin.Are there safer ways to look tan?
There are other ways to look tan, but they are not all safe:
Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The urine travels from the kidneys to the bladder in two thin tubes called ureters.
The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches long. Muscles in the ureter walls tighten and relax to force urine down and away from the kidneys. Small amounts of urine flow from the ureters into the bladder about every 10 to 15 seconds.
Sometimes the ureters can become blocked or injured. This can block the flow of urine to the bladder. If urine stands still or backs up the ureter, you may get a urinary tract infections.
Doctors diagnose problems with the ureters using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays, and examination of the ureter with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
The urethra is the tube that allows urine to pass out of the body. In men, it's a long tube that runs through the penis. It also carries semen in men. In women, it's short and is just above the vagina. Urethral problems may happen due to aging, illness, or injury. They include
Urethral problems may cause pain or difficulty passing urine. You may also have bleeding or discharge from the urethra.
Doctors diagnose urethral problems using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays and an examination of the urethra with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.